Working With Multilingual Learners in the Content Classroom

Compiled by Dr. Catherine Box, GSE, University of Pennsylvania



Crumpler, T. P., Handsfield, L. J., & Dean, T. R. (2011). Constructing difference differently in language and literacy professional development. Research in the Teaching of English, 46, 55–91.


Gibbons, P. (2009). English learners, academic literacy, and thinking: Learning in the challenge zone. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.


Gutiérrez, K., & Orellana, M. F. (2006). The “problem” of English learners: Constructing genres of difference. Research in the Teaching of English, 40, 502–507.


Peregoy, S. F. & Boyle, O. (2017). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K-12 English learners. Boston: Pearson.


Shapiro, S. (2014). “The words that you said got bigger”: English language learners’ lived experiences of the deficit discourse. Research in the Teaching of English, 48, 386-406.


Simmons, A. (2015). What undocumented students bring to the classroom. The Atlantic. Retrieved from


Wright, W. E. (2015). Foundations for teaching English language learners: Research theory, policy, and practice. Philadelphia: Caslon, Inc.



RESOURCES (PEDAGOGICAL) A website that provides free and paid resources (many schools are subscribing to it), in which the same text can be differentiated for reading level through making selections on a dropdown menu. Both content and ENL teachers have found it useful.  A website with spoken texts that are calibrated according to Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced English language levels (NOTE: This is not specifically a K-12 resource, and it is unclear by what measure levels are determined). There are materials linked to the spoken texts, and scripts are available. 

Colorin Colorado: A website containing blogs and materials for multilingual learners, their teachers, and their families. Policy issues related to bilingual education is often highlighted (issue of judge banning bilingual books in schools on the front page as of January 2018).


Publicly Available Demonstrations of Content & Language Integrated Instruction

Note: Neither are “perfect” lessons. These are both in self-contained classrooms.

Note:  Catherine’s demo lessons, which we will view during workshops, are not permitted to be shared publicly, and alas, links are not provided here. (4th grade distinguishing fact from opinion) (Middle school count vs. non-count)